Women have always been effectively contributing in the field of science since earlier times. They are observed to be making great sacrifices for the accomplishment of scientific endeavors. They have faced hurdles in making themselves accepted in the field of science. The women's effective role in science started expanding as women started working to support the financial needs of their families. The enlightenment was an era of great knowledge, communication and growth.
"The Scientific Revolution of the 16th and 17th centuries saw a large influx of women into the field of science. However, women were excluded from universities. Thus, to pursue their scientific interests, women were forced to obtain a largely informal education. European noblemen were free to pursue interests in science as hobbies; the door was also open to noblewomen, who could take part in the informal scientific networks of their fathers and brothers. The drawing skills noblewomen were encouraged to cultivate often served them in crafting detailed and accurate scientific illustrations of creatures.
Margaret Cavendish, a 17th-century aristocratic woman, took part in some of the most important scientific debates of that time. She was however, not inducted into the English Royal Society, although she was once allowed to attend a meeting. She wrote a number of works on scientific matters, including Observations upon Experimental Philosophy and Grounds of Natural Philosophy. In these works she was especially critical of the growing belief that humans, through science, were the masters of nature. As an aristocrat, the Duchess of Newcastle was a good example of the women in France and England who worked in science.
Women who wanted to work in science lived in Germany, but came from a different background. There, the tradition of female participation in craft production enabled some women to become involved in observational science, especially astronomy. Between 1650 and 1710, women made up 14% of all German astronomers. The most famous of the female astronomers in Germany was Maria Winkelmann. She was educated by her father and uncle and received training in astronomy from a nearby self-taught astronomer. Her chance to be a practicing astronomer came when she married Gottfried Kirch, Prussia's foremost astronomer. She became his assistant at the