In this paper we will discuss how the unique physical and chemical properties of water contribute to the importance of water for life on Earth to survive. Additionally, we will discuss how methods of experimentation and observation have changed throughout the history of science. I will also explain the role so called “accidental” discoveries played in the history of science. We will also describe the major experiments and scientists involved in the discovery of DNA as our hereditary material and its structure. Lastly, we will explain what role women played in the Scientific Revolution of the 18th Century and what role women in science play today.
How do the unique physical and chemical properties of water contribute to the importance of water for life on Earth to survive? When you're thirsty, you might drink a glass of cold water. It feels good right away and quenches your thirst -- it's as if your body knows what's good for you. And it does. Water is one of the most unique and essential substances for life as we know it. Water has several physical and chemical properties that are suited for sustaining life. These properties come from the nature of the water molecule. A water molecule consists of one oxygen atom that shares electrons with two hydrogen atoms. The atoms don't share equally, however. Oxygen hoards most of the shared electrons. This uneven sharing makes the molecule slightly charged, like a small magnet (dipole, polar). A water molecule attracts other water molecules, like the opposite poles of magnets attract each other. The force of attraction is a weak chemical bond called a hydrogen bond. Hydrogen bonds can be made and broken easily and they account for water's unique properties. Water molecules form hydrogen bonds with themselves and with other polar substances. This means that water can dissolve a wider variety of substances than other polar molecules (such as ammonia) or nonpolar molecules (methane, fats and oils). Because nonpolar molecules do not dissolve in water, they seek each other out. The nonpolar molecules can form barriers between water-filled compartments; this is what happens within cells. The water molecule is shaped like a broad, flat triangle. When it freezes, it forms a crystal where the molecules arrange themselves into a hexagon. The crystal takes up more space than just the six water molecules alone. Because the ice crystal occupies more space, the density of ice (water's solid form) is lower than that of its liquid form and ice therefore floats. This is a property unique to water. When a large body of wat