The U.S. and Turkey since the end of the Cold War:
The paper focuses on the era post to the end of the World War II, and prior to the starting of the Cold War, when the whole world had fallen into pieces. Once that had been highly prosperous nations, were crippling under the political and economic instability of the highest order. The colonial rule had come to an end for certain nations and some had become free for the very first time, for the others it was a period of dormancy before the upheaval started in theirs’. The Truman doctrine is nothing but a policy set by the then and 33rd President of the United States (1945–1953), Harry S Truman, for the politically and economically unstable nations such as Greece and Turkey, for aligning them with the United States and to prevent their falling into the Soviet sphere. This was done in order to reach at a balance of power with the Soviet Union, with which the U.S. was at cold war. If the economic and the military aid were not provided to these two nations on the verge of a collapse, the result would have been the insurrection of communism in these nations. The situation would have been made graver by other nations such Iran and India falling to the Soviet Unions’ side. As a result of which, in U.S. would have come to a weaker stand in the Cold War against the Soviet Union. (Milestones: 1945-1952)
Greece: The Civil War
The period from 1946 to 1949 was a period of great turmoil for Greece during which the Greek Civil War was fought. The country was divided into two- the Greek Governmental Army, which was backed by the United Kingdom and United States, and the Democratic Army of Greece which was the military branch of the Greek Communist Party and backed by Bulgaria, Yugoslavia and Albania. The Greek Government was unable to cope with the situation. The Greek army was small and poorly equipped and needed supplies and equipment to restore the authority of the government throughout Greek territory. The British helped prevent the capture of Athens by the leftist Nationalist Liberation Front which was controlled by the Greek Communist Party. The Greek government which was formed after 1946 elections was internationally recognized and was boycotted by the Greek Communist Party which was receiving favours from Marshall Tito in neighbouring Yugoslavia (What was the Truman Doctrine?).
The period after the end of the Second World War, the world was divided into many pieces and these pieces were the reason for concern for those whose were in the neighbouring areas and wanted to claim their possession over these areas. Same was reason in Turkey’s case after the Second World War. At the termination of World War II, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin demanded partial control of the Dardanelles, a strategic passage between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. Since British assistance to Turkey had ended in 1947, the U.S. dispatched military aid to ensure that Turkey would retain chief control of the passage. Turkey received $100 million in economic and military aid. The post war period from 1946 started with a multi-party period and a Democratic Party government of Adman Menderes (What was the Truman Doctrine?).
It was the 21st Day of February 1947 that the British government informed the United States officials that it could no longer provide financial aid to the governments of Greece and Turkey. The U.S. policymakers on the other hand, were already aware of the economic and political turmoil that both Greece and Turkey were going through. After the declaration of the U.K. of its non-continuity to provide help to these countries, it was then the duty off the United States.
As a result, a meeting was called for wherein the Congressmen and State Department officials. In the meeting, Undersecretary of State Dean Acheson expressed views about what later came to be known as the domino theory. It was seen that by not providing economic and political support to these nations, these two key states will collapse. The world was facing a choice in the years to come. Nations could adopt a way of life based upon the will of the majority and governments that provided guarantees of individual liberty or they could face a way of life based upon the will of a minority forcibly imposed upon the majority. This latter regime was based upon terror and oppression. The foreign policy and the national security of this country were involved in the situations that Greece and Turkey were facing. Greece was threatened by the terrorist activities of several thousand armed men, led by communists.
President Truman argued that if the U.S. government did not aid Greece and Turkey, the Soviet Union would forcefully expand its totalitarian regime into these nations and communism would even spread to south to Iran and as far east as India owing to the domino effect. Thus after the Second World War, when the whole world was divided into multi polarity world, it became essential for the United States to aid the two crippling nations in order to maintain the balance of power with the Soviet Union.
Also it was argued that a Communist victory in the Greek Civil War would endanger the political stability of Turkey, which would undermine the political stability of the Middle East. Furthermore it was realised that more than just these two nations was at stake and if this is not taken into account then, communism would spread south to Iran and as far east as India. He also made a point by making thee others realize the importance of polarization of power which existed from the days of Rome and Carthage. This theory as proposed by Dean Acheson awed and shocked the legislators present in the meeting and all of them agreed to support the agenda. In the meeting a joint and unanimous decision was taken by all which propagated that President Truman would stress the severity of the crisis in an address to Congress and in a radio broadcast to the American people (Cold War (2012).
Therefore addressing the joint session of congress on the 12th of March, 1947, President Harry S. Truman announced for $400 million in military and economic assistance for Greece and Turkey and established a doctrine, most commonly known as the Truman Doctrine that would guide U.S. diplomacy for the next 40 years. The permit of help to Greece and Turkey by Congress clearly demarcated the beginning of a long and lasting cold war foreign policy. He said that if they would let one country fall prey to communism rest all the others would themselves follow the path, most commonly propagated as the domino effect. And this on the verge of the starting of a cold war they could not allow.
It is often said that the Truman Doctrine as propagated by the President Harry S. Truman was developed and evolved from George Kennan’s 1946 long telegram which argued that the US should follow a policy of containment to stop Russian expansion. Many historians often argue for the same and even though it never had the word containment, it was known as Truman’s containment speech. The basic idea behind containment and Truman’s Doctrine was that the U.S. was concerned about preventing Soviet control over larger areas of the world than it already controlled (Cold War (2012).
• Milestones: 1945-1952. Retrieved February, 03, 2012 from http://history.state.gov/milestones/1945-1952/TrumanDoctrine
• What was the Truman Doctrine? Retrieved February, 03, 2012 from http://www.johndclare.net/EC8.htm
• Cold War (2012). Retrieved February, 03, 2012 from
Second Paper following the first one
2.Identify and describe the current relationship between the U.S. and one (1) of the countries you wrote about in the first paper.
3.Select a country you did not write about in the first paper, and describe the current U.S. diplomatic approach to the country.
4.Contrast and compare the two (2) relationships.
5.Using the two (2) countries as examples, summarize how the U.S. has changed the ways it relates to other countries in the past 20 years.
6.Cite at least four (4) reputable sources in addition to the textbook, not including Wikipedia, encyclopedias, or dictionaries.