"Given the following business scenario, create a Crow’s Foot ERD using a specialization hierarchy if appropriate.
Tiny Hospital keeps information on patients and hospital rooms. The system assigns each patient a patient ID number. In addition, the patient’s name and date of birth are recorded. Some patients are resident patients (they spend at least one night in the hospital) and others are outpatients (they are treated and released). Resident patients are assigned to a room. Each room is identified by a room number. The system also stores the room type (private or semiprivate), and room fee. Over time, each room will have many patients that stay in it. Each resident patient will stay in only one room. Every room must have had a patient, and every resident patient must have a room.
Note that in this scenario, a specialization hierarchy is not appropriate. While resident patients are an identi?able kind or type of patient instance, there are not additional attributes that are unique to only that kind or type of patient. Participation in a relationship that is unique to a particular kind or type of instance is not suf?cient justi?cation for a specialization hierarchy. Indicating that only some instances will participate in a relationship is addressed by the optional participation designation. In this scenario, all resident patients must have a room; however, not all patients are resident patients so ROOM is optional to patient. If students ask about the need for an attribute to distinguish between outpatients and resident patients, remind them that in this limited scenario the only distinction between outpatients and resident patients is whether or not they are associated with a room. Therefore, they can consider the Room_Num foreign key in the PATIENT table can serve in that capacity.
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