Philosophy- Lewis Vaughn- CHAPTER 3- Test answers - 100410

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Living Philosophy- Lewis Vaughn- CHAPTER 3- Socrates- An Examined Life True/False Quiz with answers (11 questions) Multiple Choice with Answers (20 Questions) CHAPTER 3?SOCRATES: AN EXAMINED LIFE 3.1 The Philosophical Gadfly Socrates’s unattractive appearance contrasts with his remarkable charisma, courage, and intellect, the latter of which are among the things that make him so appealing to many of Athens’s youth. In several of Plato’s dialogues, this tension is used to great effect. One’s outer appearance is nothing in comparison to one’s inner goodness—virtue. 3.2 The Socratic Method Socrates’s method is the tool for determining the state of one’s knowledge about ethical concepts and so also whether one is virtuous: for Socrates, one’s ethical state generally cannot be divested from one’s epistemological state. The method consists of directed question and answer. A ‘What is X?’ question is asked, where X is some ethical concept, such as friendship, courage, justice, and so on. Socrates’s interlocutor provides an answer. That answer is examined and found wanting. The process then begins again. The reductio ad absurdum is the mechanism whereby answers are found to be inadequate. Whether a definition of justice is too broad, too narrow, or deficient in some other way, the error is ferreted out by this mechanism of assuming a statement to be true, and deducing from it a false or logically incompatible statement (the absurdity). The resulting statement shows that the initial assumption is false. 3.3 Knowledge and Ignorance Socrates’s method almost inevitably embarrasses and angers his interlocutors—to be shown ignorant where you have professed knowledge usually does the trick. To avoid this uncomfortable situation, Socrates could, for example, simply lecture on ethical topics. He does not do this, however, for several reasons: (1) he did not think himself a Sophist — one who teaches, and does so for a fee; (2) his method and views about the soul are inextricable, so that the wellness of a soul, living the good life—and preparing oneself for an afterlife—depends on the sort of self-examination the method employs; (3) related to (2), the connection between virtue and knowledge is such that one has to discover for oneself whether or not one knows what one claims. The state of one’s soul is revealed by answers to the questions Socrates asks. One obvious indicator of an unhealthy soul, according to Socrates, is preoccupation with wealth, social status, power, and pleasure. All these distract one from pursuing knowledge, which is to say, from pursuing the right way to live. (Even if these were indicators of the right way to live, they’d need to be established as such.) 3.4 Socrates’s Trial and Death Socrates’s activities eventually resulted in his death. Faced with charges that he corrupts the youth, worships false gods, and creates new divinities, Socrates boldly declares that he would not stop his activities. He argues that many young Athenian men liked to observe the conversations Socrates had—ones that resulted in humiliation for the interlocutor—but that he didn’t actively corrupt them. Even if he does corrupt them, Socrates argues, he should be educated, not punished, since he does not corrupt them intentionally. He further argues that he cannot both be an atheist and a creator of new divinities, but not before he explains the origin of the animosity toward him. His reputation, he claims, is the result of his new accusers—Meletus and Anytus, among others—being raised by a previous generation who resented Socrates’s activities. Of singular importance to this series of events is the Oracle at Delphi. After the oracle told one of Socrates’s friends that Socrates was the wisest man in Athens, Socrates set out to determine the meaning of the claim—especially since he could not believe himself wise. His interrogations of those who he thought must be wiser than himself yielded the conclusion that, although he wasn’t wise, he was at least wiser than these men because he did not presume to have knowledge he didn’t actually possess. True or False 1. At his trial, Socrates declares he prefers exile to death. a. True b. False 2. Socrates thinks that the primary occupation of a good citizen should be the pursuit of wealth and prestige. a. True b. False 3. According to Socrates, we should always consider in doing anything whether we are doing right or wrong. a. True b. False 4. Socrates says death is probably bad. a. True b. False 5. At his trial, Socrates's cross-examination shows that Meletus's position is inconsistent. a. True b. False 6. Socrates's interest in the well-being of the soul informs his method. a. True b. False 7. Socrates accepts the Oracle's pronouncement that no one in Athens is wiser than he. a. True b. False 8. Socrates holds that knowing the virtues means having them. a. True b. False 9. Socrates believes that people pursue the good if they know what it is. a. True b. False 10. Socrates advocates moral relativism. a. True b. False 11. Socrates often demonstrates that people who think themselves wise really are wise. a. True b. False Multiple Choice 1. Socrates asked his interlocutors for __________. a. explanations of the natural world b. speculative theories on the heavens c. definitions of ethical terms d. well-reasoned political positions 2. The reductio ad absurdum is a type of __________. a. reason b. argument c. lecture d. experiment 3. Socrates claimed he did not accept __________ for teaching. a. clothing b. dinner invitations c. political appointments d. money 4. Socrates's method shows a belief in a connection between virtue and __________. a. knowledge b. belief c. faith d. power 5. A preoccupation with __________ is a clear indication, according to Socrates, that one's soul is unhealthy. a. nature b. social status c. virtue d. knowledge 6. The reductio ad absurdum shows an assumption to be __________. a. true b. false c. certain d. tenuous 7. Socrates is concerned with __________. a. the state of one's family affairs b. the state of one's soul c. one's political status d. one's social status 8. At his trial, Socrates refuses to cease __________. a. speaking b. cross-examining Meletus c. searching for a political solution to his problem d. philosophizing 9. Socrates asks the Athenian jury to __________. a. listen to his words and arguments b. take pity on his wife and children c. spare his life d. let him leave Athens 10. At his trial, Socrates declares that he will __________. a. stop philosophizing b. engage in Athenian politics c. not stop philosophizing d. take care of his family 11. For Socrates, an unexamined life is a tragedy because it results in grievous harm to the __________. a. state b. justice system c. body d. soul 12. For Socrates, the soul is harmed by lack of __________. a. knowledge b. wealth c. community d. courage 13. If you assume that a set of statements is true, and yet you can deduce a false or absurd statement from it, then the original set of statements as a whole must be false. This kind of argument is known as __________. a. modus tollens b. modus ponens c. hypothetical syllogism d. reductio ad absurdum 14. According to Socrates, a clear sign that a person has __________ is her exclusive pursuit of social status, wealth, power, and pleasure. a. philosophical ambition b. worldly wisdom c. exceptional desires d. an unhealthy soul 15. For Socrates the good of the soul is attained only through an uncompromising search for __________. a. scientific laws b. what's true and real c. a theory of everything d. what's physically necessary 16. At his death, Socrates asks his friend Crito to __________. a. clear his name b. take revenge on his accusers c. pay a debt d. take care of his family 17. At his trial, Socrates cross-examines __________. a. Anytus b. Plato c. Meletus d. Crito 18. Atheism and __________ is the contradiction regarding the gods that Socrates says his accusers put forth. a. questioning the Oracle b. creating new divinities c. cross-examination d. dedication to the good of Athens 19. Socrates claims to be a __________ for Athens's sake. a. gadfly b. stingray c. vulture d. tarantula 20. Socrates claims that __________ is not to be feared. a. an unhealthy soul b. death c. prosecution d. imprisonment
Solution Description

Living Philosophy- Lewis Vaughn- CHAPTER 3- Socrates- An Examined Life

True/False Quiz with answers (11 questions)

Multiple Choice with Answers (20 Questions)

CHAPTER 3 SOCRATES: AN EXAMINED LIFE

3.1 The Philosophical Gadfly
Socrates’s unattractive appearance contrasts with his remarkable charisma, courage, and intellect, the latter of which are among the things that make him so appealing to many of Athens’s youth. In several of Plato’s dialogues, this tension is used to great effect. One’s outer appearance is nothing in comparison to one’s inner goodness—virtue.

3.2 The Socratic Method
Socrates’s method is the tool for determining the state of one’s knowledge about ethical concepts and so also whether one is virtuous: for Socrates, one’s ethical state generally cannot be divested from one’s epistemological state.

The method consists of directed question and answer. A ‘What is X?’ question is asked, where X is some ethical concept, such as friendship, courage, justice, and so on. Socrates’s interlocutor provides an answer. That answer is examined and found wanting. The process then begins again.

The reductio ad absurdum is the mechanism whereby answers are found to be inadequate. Whether a definition of justice is too broad, too narrow, or deficient in some other way, the error is ferreted out by this mechanism of assuming a statement to be true, and deducing from it a false or logically incompatible statement (the absurdity). The resulting statement shows that the initial assumption is false.

3.3 Knowledge and Ignorance
Socrates’s method almost inevitably embarrasses and angers his interlocutors—to be shown ignorant where you have professed knowledge usually does the trick. To avoid this uncomfortable situation, Socrates could, for example, simply lecture on ethical topics. He does not do this, however, for several reasons: (1) he did not think himself a Sophist — one who teaches, and does so for a fee; (2) his method and views about the soul are inextricable, so that the wellness of a soul, living the good life—and preparing oneself for an afterlife—depends on the sort of self-examination the method employs; (3) related to (2), the connection between virtue and knowledge is such that one has to discover for oneself whether or not one knows what one claims.

The state of one’s soul is revealed by answers to the questions Socrates asks. One obvious indicator of an unhealthy soul, according to Socrates, is preoccupation with wealth, social status, power, and pleasure. All these distract one from pursuing knowledge, which is to say, from pursuing the right way to live. (Even if these were indicators of the right way to live, they’d need to be established as such.)

3.4 Socrates’s Trial and Death
Socrates’s activities eventually resulted in his death. Faced with charges that he corrupts the youth, worships false gods, and creates new divini

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