Philosophy- Lewis Vaughn CHAPTER 1- Why Philosophy - 100408

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Living Philosophy- Lewis Vaughn CHAPTER 1- Why Philosophy CHAPTER SUMMARY True/False Quiz with answers (10 questions) Multiple Choice with Answers (15 Questions) CHAPTER 1?WHY PHILOSOPHY 1.1 Philosophy: The Quest for Understanding • Know the practical and theoretical benefits of studying philosophy. • Take an inventory of your philosophical beliefs. • Know the four main divisions of philosophy and the kinds of questions they examine. 1.2 Socrates and the Examined Life • Understand why Socrates declared, “The unexamined life is not worth living.” • Explain the Socratic method and how Socrates used it in search of understanding. • Relate how Socrates showed that Thrasymachus’s notion of justice was wrong. • Explain how reductio ad absurdum arguments work. 1.3 Thinking Philosophically • Define argument, statement, conclusion, and premise. • Know the two conditions that must be met for an argument to be good. • Define deductive argument, inductive argument, valid, sound, cogent, strong, and weak. Understand inferences to the best explanation and how their strength is evaluated. • Be able to identify arguments in the form of modus ponens, modus tollens, affirming the consequent, and denying the antecedent. • Be able to identify arguments in various contexts and tell whether they are valid or invalid, sound or not sound, strong or weak, and cogent or not cogent. • Understand the guidelines for reading and appreciating philosophy. • Be aware of common fallacies and how to identify them in various contexts. True or False 1. An argument is not synonymous with persuasion. a. True b. False 2. In philosophy—and in any other kind of rational inquiry—accepting a conclusion (statement) without good reasons is an elementary mistake in reasoning. a. True b. False 3. Modus tollens is a valid argument form. a. True b. False 4. Affirming the consequent is a valid argument form. a. True b. False 5. An argument of this form—If p, then q; p; therefore, q—is called modus ponens. a. True b. False 6. An argument of this form—If p, then q; not p; therefore, not q—is called modus tollens. a. True b. False 7. This argument form known as modus tollens is valid. a. True b. False 8. When you read a philosophical essay, you are simply trying to glean some facts from it as you might if you were reading a science text or technical report. a. True b. False 9. The key to identifying an argument in context is to first determine whether the reasoning is correct. a. True b. False 10. This classic argument “The Bible says that God exists; the Bible is true because God wrote it; therefore, God exists” is an example of begging the question. a. True b. False Multiple Choice 1. The four main divisions of philosophy are metaphysics, epistemology, axiology, and __________. a. bioethics b. logic c. aesthetics d. categorical logic 2. For Socrates, grievous harm is done to the soul when one does not __________. a. take care of one's family b. study with a Sophist c. examine one's life d. pursue a political life 3. For Socrates, the soul is harmed by lack of __________. a. knowledge b. wealth c. community d. courage 4. For Socrates, examination consists of __________. a. question and answer b. memorization c. lecture d. meditation 5. The study of reality in the broadest sense, an inquiry into the elemental nature of the universe and the things in it, is known as __________. a. metaphysics b. epistemology c. quantum physics d. axiology 6. According to Socrates, a clear sign that a person has __________ is her exclusive pursuit of social status, wealth, power, and pleasure. a. philosophical ambition b. worldly wisdom c. exceptional desires d. an unhealthy soul 7. In an argument, the statement being supported is the conclusion, and the statements supporting the conclusion are the __________. a. middle statement b. persuaders c. premises d. substatements 8. Words such as consequently, therefore, and as a result are __________. a. premise indicator words b. conclusion indicator words c. statements d. persuaders 9. Arguments intended to give logically conclusive support to their conclusions so that if the premises are true, the conclusion must be true are __________. a. deductive b. inductive c. explanatory d. cogent 10. Arguments that are supposed to give probable support to their conclusions are __________. a. valid b. sound c. inductive d. deductive 11. When we arrive at a generalization about an entire group of things after observing just some members of the group, we are making a(n) __________. a. analogical induction b. sound deduction c. valid inference d. enumerative induction 12. In the type of fallacy known as __________, we argue that a particular actions should not be taken because it will lead inevitably to other actions resulting in some dire outcome. a. appeal to ignorance b. slippery slope c. false dilemma d. begging the question 13. The fallacy of misrepresenting a person's views so they can be more easily attacked or dismissed is called the __________. a. straw man fallacy b. fallacy of equivocation c. genetic fallacy d. appeal to popularity 14. The fallacy of rejecting a statement on the grounds that it comes from a particular person is known as __________. a. appeal to ignorance b. equivocation c. false dilemma d. appeal to the person 15. For Socrates the good of the soul is attained only through an uncompromising search for __________. a. scientific laws b. what's true and real c. a theory of everything d. what's physically necessary
Solution Description

Living Philosophy- Lewis Vaughn CHAPTER 1- Why Philosophy

CHAPTER SUMMARY

True/False Quiz with answers (10 questions)

Multiple Choice with Answers (15 Questions)

CHAPTER 1 WHY PHILOSOPHY

1.1 Philosophy: The Quest for Understanding

  • Know the practical and theoretical benefits of studying philosophy.
  • Take an inventory of your philosophical beliefs.
  • Know the four main divisions of philosophy and the kinds of questions they examine.

1.2 Socrates and the Examined Life

  • Understand why Socrates declared, “The unexamined life is not worth living.”
  • Explain the Socratic method and how Socrates used it in search of understanding.
  • Relate how Socrates showed that Thrasymachus’s notion of justice was wrong.
  • Explain how reductio ad absurdum arguments work.

1.3 Thinking Philosophically

  • Define argument, statement, conclusion, and premise.
  • Know the two conditions that must be met for an argument to be good.
  • Define deductive argument, inductive argument, valid, sound, cogent, strong, and weak. Understand inferences to the best explanation and how their strength is evaluated.
  • Be able to identify arguments in the form of modus ponensmodus tollens, affirming the consequent, and denying the
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