PHI 208/PHI208 FINAL EXAM (A+++++++++ GUARANTEE) - 92668

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1. In Kant Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals, the maxim of an act is: (Points ? the policy or principle that you would be following if you did it. the expected overall utility resulting from the action. the moral rule that an act either respects or violates. all of the above. Question 2.2. If Glaukon is correct, then justice (Points : 1) is valuable in its own right. is always more beneficial than injustice has value only relative to its usefulness to the individual has value only relative particular cultures Question 3.3. Aristotle describes each virtue as: (Points ? a maximum a minimum a relative mean an absolute mean Question 4.4. What is palliative care? (Points ) Treatments that relieve suffering for people in life threatening situations that allow them to live their lives to the fullest Treatments that are only provided in Canada Treatments that heal people when they face life-threatening illnesses Treatments that involve painful processes that help to kill cancer and other diseases Question 5.5. In Held’s article, a thinker named Annette Baier claims that the history of Western ethical thought does not take into account feminine aspects because (Points : 1) The great moral theorists were men who had little intimate interaction with women The great moral theorists were often loving husbands The great moral theorists hated women The great moral theorists Question 6.6. Rachels claims that: (Points : 1) there is no moral difference between active and passive euthanasia, considered in themselves there is always a moral difference between the consequences of active and passive euthanasia both a and b neither a nor b Question 7.7. In Aristotle’s view, the virtues are: (Points : 1) acquired through habit acquired through philosophical reflection a gift from the gods something we are either born with or not Question 8.8. If Midgley is correct, moral scepticism (Points : 1) Leads to inaction Leads to crude opinions Leads to immorality Rejects all criticism Question 9.9. What does Peter Singer say about the history of liberation movements? (Points : 1) They tend to become narrower in scope … zeroing in on the exact class that deserves moral consideration They tend to become wider in scope … with people learning to apply moral principles to groups previously not considered They tend to become more discriminatory … giving fewer and fewer rights to the less privileged. They tend to discover that the original concepts in the past were superior and it is a mistake to veer from traditional wisdom Question 10.10. According to Kant, suicide is: (Points :) Moral if and only if one’s life becomes too burdensome Moral if and only if it relieves other people’s burdens Immoral because it involves treating one’s autonomous will merely as a means to the relief of suffering Immoral because it condemns one to eternal damnation Question 11.11. According to the videos, in which is it legal to commit assisted suicide? (Points : 1) Canada Mexico Germany Switzerland Question 12.12. The Ring of Gyges gave the shepherd who found it (Points ? Intelligence Invincibility Invisibility Wisdom Question 13.13. According to Nagel, which of the following may be permitted by absolutism, at least in some circumstances? (Points : 1) Intentionally killing an innocent person Doing something that brings about an innocent person's death Dropping a nuclear bomb on an enemy city Torturing an innocent person Question 14.14. According to Glaukon, justice is based on (Points : 1) Mutually advantageous agreements among people The laws of God Natural goodwill among people The will of the powerful Question 15.15. A false promise, according to Kant, is: (Points : 1) something that I could never will to be universal law something that I could will to be universal law only when it benefits the majority something that I could will to be universal law only when it benefits me something that I could will to be universal law only when it prevents a greater Question 16.16. In the video, “Drones Are Ethical and Effective,” Kenneth Anderson argues that the use of drones is ethical because (Points : 1) it provides a greater separation between the target and operator it allows us to maintain a list of high value targets it is more precise than other forms of weaponry none of the above Question 17.17. According to Kant, the moral worth of an action: (Points : 1) lies in its conformity to the moral law lies in the value of the expected result lies in its conformity to God’s commands lies in its usefulness to society Question 18.18. According to Rachels, active euthanasia is currently: (Points : 1) forbidden by law, and conventionally considered immoral forbidden by law, but conventionally considered permissible permitted by law, but conventionally considered immoral permitted by law, and conventionally considered permissible. Question 19.19. Midgely concludes that (Points : 1) If we accept a value in another culture, we can still reject that value in our culture If we accept a value in another culture, we must accept that value in our culture If we reject a value in another culture, we must reject that value in our culture B and C Question 20.20. Robinson suggests that the more closely one associates with one’s identity with a certain group, the more one will (Points : 1) Associate one’s honor with defying the honor of the group Associate one’s honor with that of the group Associate one’s honor with that of the enemy group Associate one’s honor with the honor of prudence None of the above Question 21.21. When faced with the complaint that utilitarianism is a doctrine worthy of pigs, Mill responds that pleasures differ in: (Points : 1) purity quality species weight Question 22.22. Which answer best describes Noddings’s statements about how mothers frequently to feel about losing their children in war? (Points : 1) Mothers rest assured that the deaths of their children was fully justified by the good they did in the war Mothers often allow their desire to demonstrate patriotism to override their natural opposition to war and the death of their children Mothers universally oppose war and the death of children that it inevitably brings Mothers are generally more enthusiastic for war than anyone else because they know it will make the world safer for future generations Question 23.23. Rachels argues that the conventional doctrine: (Points : 1) is self-evidently correct is not what most people believe, but can be supported by strong arguments leads to decisions concerning life and death made on morally irrelevant grounds leads to patients being euthanized against their will Question 24.24. According to Nagel, to which of the following groups of people is hostility most appropriately aimed? (Points : 1) Innocents Civilians Combatants Non-combatants Question 25.25. Midgley analyzes the position that each society is a separate culture with its own values. This position is known as (Points ? Moral relativism Moral isolationism Moral structuralism Question 26.26. Midgley thinks that although we can understand or appreciate other societies, (Points : 1) We should never judge the values of other societies We must always respect the values of other societies We have the right to judge other societies We cannot understand them well enough to judge them. Question 27.27. According to the video “Religion, War, and Violence,” Just War Theory asserts that military intervention (Points : 1) can be seen as an act of altruism must always have an altruistic component must be primarily an act of altruism must never have an altruistic component Question 28.28. Reason is a faculty that we have that: (Points : 1) is only good if it succeeds in satisfying our desires is the driving principle of a good will is the fundamental ground of human dignity both B and C Question 29.29. Robinson argues that integrity should be regarded as: (Points : 1) An absolute value in all military activities An absolute value in the honor group An absolute value only on the battlefield An absolute value only for noncombatants None of the above Question 30.30. According to the video “Religion, War, and Violence,” proponents of Just War Theory agree that without the restraints of Just War Theory (Points : 1) the violence and aggression of war would be worse humanitarian intervention would be more successful prisoners and noncombatants would have greater equality none of the above Question 31.31. Hill claims that a fruitful way to think about the badness of destroying the environment is: (Points : 1) To think about what kind of human would choose to destroy the earth To appeal to theories about God and care for the earth To examine people’s intuitions about whether it is right to harm the environment To examine the rights that belong to the environment and act on the basis of those rights Question 32.32. Which of the following does not happen to pigs on today’s factory farms in the “Meet Your Meat” video? (Points : 1) They are raised in extreme confinement so dense that they can’t turn around They are castrated and have tails chopped without pain killers They are slaughtered quickly and painlessly Many are quite conscious while being slaughtered Question 33.33. In the Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals we find that to act on ‘duty’ is (Points : 1) to act from a self-seeking purpose to act because you want to to act out of respect for law to act out of the fear of God Question 34.34. According to Caroline Heldman, which of the following is a question that applies to her sexual object test? (Points : 1) Does the image show people having sex? Does the image show a person as something that can be bought or sold? Does the image display a full image of a woman? Does the image display violence against people in the image? Question 35.35. According to Gilligan, stages five and six of Kohlberg’s analysis of moral development involve (Points : 1) an egocentric understanding of fairness shared conventions of societal agreement a logic of equality and reciprocity a disposition of emotional affectivity Question 36.36. The conventional doctrine is endorsed by: (Points : 1) Rachels the American Medical Association both a and b neither a nor b Question 37.37. Kass argues that there is an important difference between withdrawing treatment and active, direct mercy killing, and this difference lies in the (Points : 1) primary intention of the doctor ultimate outcome of the actions Constitution of the United States sympathy that we feel for the patient’s suffering. Question 38.38. James Rachels points out that when passive euthanasia is employed on infants, they typically die of: (Points : 1) poisoning SARS. suffocation dehydration and infection Question 39.39. Passive euthanasia is: (Points : 1) the intentional termination of one’s life by another person, to relieve pain and suffering. ceasing to use “extraordinary means” to prolong someone’s life intentionally causing a patient’s death, against the patient’s wishes the refusal to treat a patient to avoid incurring unnecessary costs Question 40.40. In what way would Hill’s notion of “self-acceptance” correspond to Aristotle’s conception of eudaimonia? (Points : 1) They both are inherently selfish and contrary to virtue They both require the virtues of arrogance and pride Neither has anything to do with ethics They both involve acknowledging that we are the sorts of creatures we are. Question 41.41. Hill would claim that a lack of aesthetic perception (Points : 1) might indicate an inability to appreciate the true value of things in general might indicate that the person simply has a different set of subjective tastes might indicate that one lacks a precise philosophical account of the beautiful might indicate an inability to express proper self-deception. Question 42.42. Michael Walzer argues that there is a radical distinction between war and civil life because (Points : 1) war is an intensely collective and collectivizing experience the circumstances of war are intensely coercive in ways not found elsewhere in society war is a world of pervasive uncertainty all of the above Question 43.43. In the video, “Drones are Ethical and Effective,” Kenneth Anderson states that drones are different from other weapon systems because (Points : 1) they provide a longer loiter time they involve remote operation they eliminate civilian casualties none of the above Question 44.44. According to the scene from The Bridge on the River Kwai, what is the ultimate reason Colonel Nicholson (Alec Guinness) insists that the soldiers work hard to build the best bridge possible: (Points : 1) Because even in captivity, they know that God is watching them So that the British forces will be able to fight the Japanese more effectively Because the better the bridge, the more benefit they will receive and less punishment they will endure from their captors Because it is an expression of the strength and dignity of a soldier even in captivity Question 45.45. Gilligan claims that females tend to see relationships as these (Points : 1) hierarchies webs rules duties Question 46.46. Thomas Nagel argues that all rules of engagement should be governed by the utilitarian principle that (Points : 1) any means can be justified if it leads to a worthy end the greatest good can justify targeting noncombatants we are always justified in attacking the tyranny of the majority none of the above Question 47.47. In Gilligan’s example, the child named Amy focuses on this aspect of the Heinz dilemma (Points : 1) the logical nature of the problem a utilitarian calculus that weighs the options Kohlberg’s theory of moral development the relationships involved in the dilemma Question 48.48. Leon Kass argues that the primary responsibility of physicians is to: (Points : 1) respect the autonomy of the patient. make decisions on the basis of compassion and good intention benefit sick by the activity of healing preserve a patient’s life by every means possible Question 49.49. Glaukon seems to think that people are (Points : 1) Naturally benevolent Naturally pious Naturally just Naturally egocentric Question 50.50. According to Rachels, many people accept the conventional doctrine because they believe: (Points : 1) killing is intrinsically worse than letting die there is no intrinsic moral difference between killing and letting die letting die is morally worse than killing it is never permissible either to let someone die or to kill them
Solution Description

1. In Kant Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals, the maxim of an act is: (Points J

the policy or principle that you would be following if you did it.
the expected overall utility resulting from the action.

the moral rule that an act either respects or violates.

all of the above.

Question 2.2. If Glaukon is correct, then justice (Points : 1)

is valuable in its own right.
is always more beneficial than injustice

has value only relative to its usefulness to the individual

has value only relative particular cultures

Question 3.3. Aristotle describes each virtue as: (Points J

a maximum

a minimum

a relative mean

an absolute mean

Question 4.4. What is palliative care? (Points )

Treatments that relieve suffering for people in life threatening situations that allow them to live their lives to the fullest

Treatments that are only provided in Canada

Treatments that heal people when they face life-threatening illnesses

Treatments that involve painful processes that help to kill cancer and other diseases

Question 5.5. In Held’s article, a thinker named Annette Baier claims that the history of Western ethical thought does not take into account feminine aspects because (Points : 1)

The great moral theorists were men who had little intimate interaction with women

The great moral theorists were often loving husbands

The great moral theorists hated women

The great moral theorists

Question 6.6. Rachels claims that: (Points : 1)

there is no moral difference between active and passive euthanasia, considered in themselves

there is always a moral difference between the consequences of active and passive euthanasia

both a and b

neither a nor b

Question 7.7. In Aristotle’s view, the virtues are: (Points : 1)

acquired through habit

acquired through philosophical reflection

a gift from the gods

something we are either born with or not

Question 8.8. If Midgley is correct, moral scepticism (Points : 1)

Leads to inaction

Leads to crude opinions

Leads to immorality

Rejects all criticism

Question 9.9. What does Peter Singer say about the history of liberation movements?  (Points : 1)

They tend to become narrower in scope … zeroing in on the exact class that deserves moral consideration

They tend to become wider in scope … with people learning to apply moral principles to groups previously not considered

They tend to become more discriminatory … giving fewer and fewer rights to the less privileged.

They tend to discover that the original concepts in the past were superior and it is a mistake to veer from traditional wisdom

Question 10.10. According to Kant, suicide is: (Points :)

Moral if and only if one’s life becomes too burdensome

Moral if and only if it relieves other people’s burdens

Immoral because it involves treating one’s autonomous will merely as a means to the relief of suffering

Immoral because it condemns one to eternal damnation

Question 11.11

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