My research paper is on Rhabnoid tumors - 20610

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My research paper is on Rhabnoid tumors Add to your current paper with 2 pages in Standard English that (1) summarizes the current information about your research problem with APA formatted citations to acknowledge your sources, (2) provides analysis as to whether a hypothesis or a refined research question is the appropriate next step, and (3) identifies either the hypothesis or the refined research question. Divide your paper in the following sections: 1. Research Problem (summarize the paper I attached labled unit 2) 2.Current Background (summarize the paper I attached labled unit 3) 3. Hypothesis or refined research question. Discuss how you determined that a hypothesis could or could not be developed. Check Paper Requirement Content 1. My paper is divided into sections for the Research Problem, Current Background, and Hypothesis or Refined Research Problem Analysis. 2. I revised the section for the research problem as needed based on the feedback from my Unit 2 paper. 3. I have summarized current information in my own words with citations to avoid any problems with plagiarism. 4. I have provided analysis based on what I found in my background search to support my conclusion as to whether or not a hypothesis can be developed. 5. My hypothesis or refined research question is specific and clear. Mechanics I used multiple paragraphs to organize my ideas. I checked spelling and grammar. I reread my paper to ensure that it says what I wanted to say. My writing is clear and specific. APA compliance I have an APA formatted title page with a meaningful title that identifies my project. I included citations in APA format in the text to acknowledge the source of the information. I have a reference page with complete reference information in APA format. Here is an example If Your research question was: do African Americans without insurance experience high mortality rates from stroke. Okay, now that you have that you want to look at the literature. So, when you summarize all the articles that is what you will be the type of information you will be looking for! When you summarize the study you need to give name and year of authors - Dada-Jones (2009) conducted a study which shows that insurance rates make no difference in stroke mortality for African Americans, but the sample size was small ( under 30). Now, you find a second article that says: disparities exist for AA from stroke mortality because of insurance and provider care. You would summarize the article as follows: Johannsen (2013) conducted a study of 1800 participants who were self selected into a study. They found that AA stroke mortality is due to both insurance status and provider care. Your observation would be from these two studies: there is some evidence that suggests that insurance plays a role in disparities however it is not all that clear cut- in one case the sample was too small and in the second there was bias. You can then add the other articles in your summary looking for issues such as those that I have mentioned above. Your conclusion could be: Given the lack of clarity about the role that insurance plays a major role in disparities in outcome for AA with stroke, this study will attempt to shed more light on the role of insurance with respect to disparate outcomes in stroke mortality. Our hypothesis is that with a well designed study, we predict that lack of insurance is a major predictor of disparities in stroke mortality for African Americans Here are the assignments that I have already done. UNIT 2 Unit 2 The Rabnoid Tumor Kimberly Crawford June 17, 2013   An area in health science that I believe needs to be researched more is the rhabdoid tumor. A rhabdoid tumor is a highly aggressive and metastatic form of pediatric cancer. These tumors were initially considered an aggressive variant of Wilms' tumor of the kidney, however, with newer diagnostic techniques, these tumors are believed to represent a distinct entity, and believed to be a subset of medulloblastomas. Rhabdoid tumors are rare, frequently lethal and affect mostly children. No definite treatment has been made and that is why there must be more research done on different types of treatment for rhabdoid tumors. (Sciences, n.d.) There are 2 types of rhabdoid tumors, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors and malignant rhabdoid tumors. Rhabdoid tumors that are typically located within the kidneys or the Central nervous system including the brain and spine are classified as atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors. (Health, n.d.) Rhabdoid tumors located in in soft tissues including the kidney, liver and spleen are malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRTs). (James I Geller, 1994-2013) Although both being very dangerous the atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors have a higher mortality rate. Current treatments differ depending on where the rhabdoid tumor is located. Treatment for the atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors and malignant rhabdoid tumor generally involves surgical removal of the tumor followed by chemotherapy. Surgical removal is only possible if the tumor is located in a spot of the body where it is possible to be removed. Radiation therapy may be considered depending on the age of the child and whether the tumor has recurred. Even after surgery and chemotherapy treatment, the survival rate for children younger than 3 at diagnosis with having an atypical teratoid/rhabdoid is less than 10 percent. It appears that older children, when treated with chemotherapy and radiation therapy after surgery, do somewhat better long-term, nearing 70 percent. (Sciences, n.d.) In conclusion the rhabdoid tumor is a very aggressive and dangerous form of cancer. The treatment for rhabdoid tumors remains investigational. No accepted standard therapy has been established for this disease. Because this form of cancer typically affects young children high doses of chemo therapy and radiation can be harmful due to excessive toxicity in chemotherapeutic doses. The best way that I feel we can get a better understanding of this disease and what can help treat or even slow down the progression is to do clinical trials.   References: Health, U. D. (n.d.). Childhood Central Nervous System Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor Treatment . Retrieved from National Cancer Institute: James I Geller, M. (1994-2013). Malignant Rhabdoid Tumor . Retrieved from Medscape: Sciences, N. C. (n.d.). Rhabdoid tumor. Retrieved from National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences: Unit 3 The Rabnoid Tumor Kimberly Crawford June 25, 2013 Unit 3 Assignment Kaplan University Rhabdoid Tumor Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor (AT/RT) attacks the central nervous system (CNS) of the children less than 3 years. Most of them died in the period of 1 year after diagnosis. In 1990s, mistakenly this tumor was treated as medulloblastoma. Later on researches showed that AT/RT needs serious treatments than medulloblastoma. Even after treatments like surgeries and chemotherapy a large number of affected children died as the result of local recurrence i.e. the reappearance of the signs and symptoms at the site where it was previously treated and responded to therapy. Radiation therapy was not considered as a standard treatment for infants or younger children, although recent researches showed that the use of radiation therapy as well as chemotherapy aids in long-term survivals. However, there may be a chance of experiencing devastating effects of radiation therapy later, if a child survives from the disease. Reviewed researches are evident on a prolonged survival if radiation therapy is done at an early stage. (Squire, Michael, & Karen, 2007) Modena et al. (2013) stated that malignant rhabdoid tumors are fatal neoplasms that affect infants. This disease hits the renal and extra renal locations plus soft tissues and brain. Tekautz et al. (2005) described clinical specifications and therapeutic methods for the treatment of AT/RT at St Jude Children's Research Hospital (SJCRH). They took patient’s history from July 1984 to June 2003. SJCRH had thirty-seven patients in 19 years that were diagnosed with AT/RT. Six patients were excluded as they were not fit on clinical criteria then from remaining 31 patients, 22 were less than 3 years of age. Patients were observed to have Posterior fossa primary lesions and metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis. All of them went through surgeries and 30 received chemotherapy; 3 out of 4 patients were survived successfully from the disease by the use of therapies like ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide. It was found that older patients with AT/RT can be treated efficiently if radiation therapy is done with high-dose of alkylating therapy. Chi et al. (2009) treated 20 patients out of 25 from 2004 to 2006. Treatment was done in five steps i.e. preirradiation, chemoradiation, consolidation, maintenance, and continuation therapy. Ages of patients were from 2.4 months to 19.5 years that gave a median value of 26 months. Surgery of eleven patients having tumor was done. Fourteen patients had M0 disease at the time of diagnosis; one had M2 disease and five were diagnosed with M3. Radiation therapy of fifteen patients was done; 11 received focal and 4 had craniospinal. Significant improvements were observed in these patients from start till end of the treatment process that ended in the survival of patients. Video link: REFRENCES Peer Articles: 1. Chi, S., N., Mary, A. Z., Xiaopan. Y., Kenneth, J., C., Peter, B., Jaclyn, A., B., Lucy, B., R., A., Michael, J., F., Anna, J., Claire, M., Stewart, G., Peter, E., M., Daniel, C. B., Anne, B., Joshua, R., Christopher, D. T., Karen, J. M., Liliana, G., Nicole, J., U., & Mark, W., K. (2009). Intensive Multimodality Treatment for Children With Newly Diagnosed CNS Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumor. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 27(3), 385-389. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2008.18.7724 JCO 2. Modena, P., Iacopo, S., Monica, B., Laura, G., Anna, M., B., Bianca, P., Veronica, B., Lorenzo, G., Manila, A., Roberta, M., Felice, G. & Maura, M. (2013). Case report: long-term survival of an infant syndromic patient affected by atypical teratoid-rhabdoid tumor. Retrieved from Non-peer Articles: 3. Squire, S., E., Michael, D., C., & Karen, J., M. (2004). Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor: the controversy behind radiation therapy. Journal of Neuro-Oncology, 81(1), 97-111 4. Tekautz, T., M., Christine, E. F., Susan, B., Maryam F., Alberto, B., Thomas, E. M., Matthew, K., James, D., Gregory, H., Larry, E. K., Dana, W., Richard, J., G. & Amar G. (2005). Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumors (ATRT): Improved Survival in Children 3 Years of Age and Older With Radiation Therapy and High-Dose Alkylator-Based Chemotherapy. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 23(7), 1491-1499. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2005.05.187
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