Thinking involves which of the following processes?
2. Mental categories used to class together objects, relations, events, abstractions or qualities that have common properties are called
3. We tend to organize concepts into ____, which relate the concepts according to levels
4. Two-year-old Melissa calls the postman "Daddy" when she sees a man with large shoes and long pants at their doorstep. Her mother says, "No, that's the postman!" Melissa is displaying ____ and her mother is teaching by ____.
5. A problem-solving technique that involves a specific procedure for the particular type of problem is called
6. Rules of thumb that help simplify and solve problems are called
7. The tendency to solve new problems with an approach that solved a similar problem in the past is called
8. When the solution to a problem involves a sudden reorganization of the perceptual field, this is called
9. The tendency to think of an object in terms of its name or its familiar function is called
10. Pat Murphy, a police officer of Irish ethnic background, has a black belt in Karate and smokes cigars. On the basis of which rule of thumb do we assume that Pat is male?
11. The mayor of a large city announced that the incidence of major crimes was down for the third year in a row. Yet a poll of residents who regularly watched the evening news on TV revealed that they still felt the frequency of criminal acts was high and they felt unsafe living in the city. Which rule of thumb was responsible for the persistence of the residents' fears?
12. Your friend wants you to go to a movie with him, but you aren't sure if you will like the film. Your friend tries to convince you to go by explaining that all of your other friends who saw the film claimed it was the best film they had seen in years. Your friend is using the ____ to influence your decision.
13. Mr. Dithering, an office manager of a service company, believes that he is an excellent judge of character and that he can spot a talented prospective employee in a brief interview. Often he will point out his successful hires, but fails to acknowledge poorly performing employees he hired. Mr. Dithering's judgment suffers from
14. Researchers who have studied animal language have shown all of the following EXCEPT
15. The sentence "Low flying airplanes can be dangerous" has a different meaning from "Flying airplanes low can be dangerous." Even though both sentences have the same words, only the order of the words differs. These differences in meaning are the concern of
16. The linguistic-relativity hypothesis predicts that speakers of different languages
17. The development of prelinguistic vocalizations by infants follows which order
18. A three-year-old says, "Mommy goed away." This sentence is an example of
19. The psychologist who first developed modern intelligence-testing methods was
20. Jack is 8 years old and has a mental age of 10. His IQ score is ____.
21. A child who can't answer as many items correctly on the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale as other children of the same age, has a
22. According to the Wechsler scales, the middle 50% of scores fall within the "broad average range." This is
23. Which of the following statements is true regarding IQ scores?
24. When social class factors are not taken into consideration, ethnic differences for intelligence test scores seem to follow which pattern?
25. Studies with children in Colorado, Texas and Minnesota have found a stronger relationship between the IQ scores of adopted children and their____ than with their ____.