1. ________ is the inner state that causes an individual to behave in a way that ensures the
accomplishment of some goal.
b. Cognitive dissonance
2. Which of the following are the three basic categories of needs identified by Clayton Alderfer in
his ERG theory?
a. esteem, recognition, and goal
b. existence, recognition, and growth
c. existence, relatedness, and growth
d. existence, relatedness, and goal
e. esteem, relatedness, and goal
3. In Alderfer’s ERG theory, ________ need refers to the need for continuing personal development.
4. Which of the following motivation theories focuses on the personal and natural development of
people to explain human needs?
a. McClelland’s acquired needs theory
b. Argyris’s maturity-immaturity continuum
c. Alderfer’s ERG theory
d. Herzberg’s two-factor theory
e. The Vroom expectancy theory
5. According to McClelland, people having the desire to maintain close, friendly, personal
relationships have a high need for ________.
6. Which theory is a set of essentially positive assumptions about human nature?
a. Theory X
b. Expectancy Theory
c. Theory Z
d. Equity Theory
e. Theory Y
7. The process of moving workers from one job to another rather than requiring them to perform
only one simple and specialized job over the long run is ________.
a. cross training
b. team management
c. job enrichment
d. job enlargement
e. job rotation
8. ________ is the presentation of an undesirable behavior consequence or the removal of a
desirable behavior consequence that decreases the likelihood the behavior will continue.
a. Positive reinforcement
c. Negative reinforcement
9. In Likert’s Management System, which style of management is characterized by complete trust
and confidence in subordinates?
a. System 4
b. System 3
c. System 1
d. System 2
e. System 5
10. Which of the following would be an example of a task group?
a. A group set up to consider the feasibility of a new product
b. A group of supervisors responsible for scheduling weekly work
c. A group of students coming together because of their music preferences
d. A group meeting to prepare the routine financial reports
e. A group of employees forming an exercise group
11. Which of the following is one of the major reasons to establish a committee?
a. To perpetuate social and cultural values that group members consider important
b. To obtain status and social satisfaction that people might not enjoy without group
c. To develop new ideas for solving existing organizational problems
d. To encourage groupthink
e. To handle routine organizational activities
12. Which of the following statements about self-managed work teams is true?
a. Self-managed teams consist of a highly integrated group who are responsible for the
b. Members of a self-managed team learn specific tasks required to produce a product and
avoid job rotation.
c. Self-managed teams never take over managerial duties as scheduling work and
vacations and ordering materials.
d. Self-managed work teams evolved in the early to middle 1980s out of problem-solving
e. Self-managed work teams laid the foundation for the special-purpose teams that arose
in the 1990s.
13. Interest groups are ________.
a. informal groups
b. task groups
c. command groups
d. formal groups
e. self-managed work teams
14. Which of the following is one of the primary benefits of informal group membership?
a. Developing new ideas for solving existing organizational problems
b. Perpetuating social and cultural values that group members consider important
c. Generating clarity on what support and input each employee can expect from others
d. Providing basic structure of division of work and responsibilities
e. Promoting discipline in the organization
15. Which of the following is considered a people-related factor that leads to effective team
a. Mutual trust and team spirit
b. Proper technical direction and leadership
c. High power struggle within the team
d. Stable goals and priorities
e. Organizational stability and job security
16. ________ is a component of creativity that refers to everything an individual knows and can do
in the broad domain of his or her work.
b. Creative thinking
17. Which of the following is characteristic of a person who is more likely to think creatively under
high time pressure?
a. He or she can focus on one activity for a significant part of the day as he or she is
undisturbed or protected.
b. He or she receives little encouragement from senior management to be creative.
c. He or she tends to have more meetings and discussions with groups rather than with
d. He or she is less likely to engage in less collaborative work overall.
e. He or she does not get the sense that the work he or she is doing is important.
18. Which of the following steps of the innovation process establishes a new idea that could help
the organization be more successful?
19. Using video conferencing to help organization members across the globe communicate more
effectively is an example of a ________ idea.
20. Which of the following is one of the possible creative ideas for enhancing organizational
success based on Deming’s thoughts on total quality management?
a. Establish an organizational bias toward handling quality issues immediately.
b. Eliminate production processes based simply on producing a quota.
c. Dedicate top management to having customers receive products as promised.
d. Begin each management meeting with a factual and financial review of quality.
e. Dedicate all managers to getting the jobs done correctly the first time.
21. ________ is managerial activity aimed at bringing organizational performance up to the level of
b. Contrarian investing
c. Corrective action
e. Market correction
22. The extent to which an individual is able to influence others so they respond to orders is called
23. In management terms, information refers to ________.
a. a collection of facts or statistics
b. the skill set of the employees carrying out a particular organizational function
c. a collection of numbers, characters, images or other outputs from devices that gather
physical quantities and symbols
d. the set of conclusions derived from the analysis of data that relate to the operation of an
e. raw, unorganized representations of individual facts and/or figures
24. Which of the following is NOT a factor that determines the value of information?
a. Information quantity
b. Information timeliness
c. Information appropriateness
d. Information quality
e. Information cost
25. Which of the following is the last step in operating an IS properly?
a. using the information
b. determining appropriate data
c. transmitting data
d. determining information needs
e. gathering appropriate data