MGT 557 Final Exam (Latest) - 96103

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1) To most people the words bargaining and negotiation are mutually exclusive interchangeable not related interdependent 2) Whereas distributive bargaining is often characterized by mistrust and suspicion, integrative negotiation is characterized by which of the following? Obligation and perseverance Avoidance and compromise Influence and persuasiveness Trust and openness Cognition and emotion 3) Distributive bargaining strategies are the most efficient negotiating strategies to use are used in all interdependent relationships are useful in maintaining long-term relationships can cause negotiators to ignore what the parties have in common 4) Good distributive bargainers will begin negotiations with the other party with an opening offer close to their own resistance point ensure that there is enough room in the bargaining range to make some concessions accept an offer that is presented as a fait accompli immediately identify the other party’s target point 5) Which of the following processes is central to achieving almost all integrative agreements? Moderating the free flow of information to ensure that each party’s position is accurately stated Exchanging information about each party’s position on key issues Emphasizing the commonalties between the parties Searching for solutions that maximize the substantive outcome for both parties 6) Which of the following 5-step processes has been used successfully in a collective bargaining situation? Commitment, explanation, validation, prioritization, negotiation Commitment, exploration, verification, prioritization, negotiation Collaboration, explanation, validation, prioritization, negotiation Collaboration, exploration, verification, prioritization, negotiation 7) Which of the following is one of the five linguistic dimensions of making threats? The use of inclusive language The conveyance of verbal immediacy The degree of lexical homogeneity The extent of low-power language style 8) Gibbons, Bradac, and Busch suggest that threats can be made more credible and more compelling by using positively polarized descriptions of the other party low immediacy high intensity low verbal diversity 9) The concept of duty ethics states that the rightness of an action is determined by evaluating the pros and cons of its consequences the rightness of an action is determined by existing laws and contemporary social standards that define what is right and wrong and where the line is the rightness of an action is based on the customs and norms of a particular society or community the rightness of an action is based on one’s conscience and moral standards 10) Ethical criteria for judging appropriate conduct define what is wise based on trying to understand the efficacy of the tactic and the consequences it might have on the relationship with the other what a negotiator can actually make happen in a given situation what is appropriate as determined by some standard of moral conduct what the law defines as acceptable practice 11) Audiences hold negotiators accountable in all but one of the following ways: When the negotiator’s performance is visible When the audience is dependent upon the negotiator for their outcomes When the negotiating agents were members of a group that developed the negotiating position When the audience is able to judge how well a negotiator performs When the audience insists that the negotiator be tough, firm 12) Which of the following would you not likely find the use of an agent in negotiations? When your natural conflict style is to compromise, accommodate, or avoid When the agent has special friends, relationships or connections that he or she can use to contact the right people to get a deal done When the representative has better negotiation skills than you When you need to repair a damaged relationship When you are emotionally involved in an issue or problem 13) Which of the following is a property of a coalition? A coalition is a non-interacting group of individuals. A coalition is dependent on the formal structure of the organization. A coalition consists of mutually perceived membership. A coalition is focused on a goal or goals internal to the coalition. 14) Which of the following lists three of the major types of coalitions? Potential coalitions, operating coalitions, and recurring coalitions External coalitions, operating coalitions, and recurring coalitions Latent coalitions, established coalitions, and potential coalitions Established coalitions, operating coalitions, and temporary coalitions 15) What is the result of procedural complexity in multiparty negotiations? The fewer the number of parties, the more complex the decision-making process becomes. The increased number of negotiators will streamline the decision-making process. Negotiators can ignore the problem of multiple related issues. Negotiators will probably have to devote discussion time to how they will manage the process to arrive at the type of solution or agreement they want. 16) Research on gender characteristics in negotiation has shown a strength in the use of gender as the independent variable has yielded consistent findings to document significant differences between male and female negotiators has found there are differences in how males and females negotiate, but these differences are difficult to detect has a generalized influence on the dependent variables in a negotiation 17) Self-efficacy is a perception of the extent to which external circumstances control the negotiation refers to the extent to which people perceive that they have control over events which occur is the negotiator’s capacity to understand the other party’s point of view during a negotiation is considered to be a judgment about one’s ability to behave effect lively in a given situation 18) The extent to which people perceive that they have control over events that occur is called self-monitoring locus of control Machiavellianism the negotiator’s degree of assertiveness 19) We use the term culture to refer to the religious beliefs of a group of people ethnicity of a group of people geographic nationality of a group of people shared values and beliefs of a group of people 20) Which of the following is an immediate context factor in cross-cultural negotiations? External stakeholders Instability International economic factors Relationship between negotiators 21) Which of the following lists the stages of the perceptual process in the correct order? Stimulus, translation, attention, recognition, behavior Stimulus, behavior, translation, attention, recognition Stimulus, attention, recognition, translation, behavior Behavior, stimulus, recognition, attention, translation 22) The chilling effect states that If negotiators anticipate that their own failure to agree will lead to a binding arbitration, they lose their incentive to work seriously for a negotiated settlement when arbitration is anticipated as a result of the failure of parties to agree, negotiators may lose interest in the process of negotiating as the frequency of arbitration increases, disenchantment with the adequacy and fairness of the process develops, and the parties may resort to other means to resolve their disputes perceived patterns of partiality toward one side may jeopardize the arbitrator’s acceptability in future disputes 23) Which of the following is heavily involved in helping to establish or enhance communication and dispute resolution skills that the parties can then apply to the immediate dispute and future communication? Process consultants Arbitrators ADR systems Mediators 24) Negotiators always run the risk of encountering other parties who, for any number of reasons, are difficult negotiators. That difficulty may be intentional or due to inexperience philosophical differences inadequate skill lack of sophistication a psychological imbalance 25) In the imaging process, parties in conflict are asked to engage in the following activities in what order? Describe how they see themselves, state how they think the other party would describe them, describe how the other party appears to them, state how they think the other party sees themselves Describe how they see themselves; describe how the other party appears to them, state how they think the other party would describe them, state how they think the other party sees themselves Describe how the other party appears to them, state how they think the other party sees themselves, describe how they see themselves, state how they think the other party would describe them State how they think the other party would describe them, state how they think the other party sees themselves, describe how they see themselves, describe how the other party appears to them 26) The strategy of disarmament includes: Providing some distance from the conflict and from one’s own emotions Negotiating directly and openly the rules of the negotiation process Helping the other party thinks about the consequences of not reaching an agreement Expressing one’s own views clearly and considerately Asking open-ended questions 27) Negotiation is fundamentally a skill involving analysis and _____________ that everyone can learn. preparation cooperation communication process innovation 28) At the top of the best practice list for every negotiator is managing coalitions diagnosing the structure of the negotiation remembering the intangibles preparation protecting your reputation 29) Negotiators should make a conscious decision about whether they are facing a fundamentally distributive negotiation, an integrative negotiation, or a combative negotiation group negotiation cooperative negotiation creative negotiation a blend of both distributive and integrative negotiation 30) The goal of most negotiations is achieving which of the following? A final settlement A valued outcome An agreement per se A value claiming goal A value creating goal
Solution Description

1) To most people the words bargaining and negotiation are

mutually exclusive

interchangeable

not related

interdependent

2) Whereas distributive bargaining is often characterized by mistrust and suspicion, integrative negotiation is characterized by which of the following?

Obligation and perseverance

Avoidance and compromise

Influence and persuasiveness

Trust and openness

Cognition and emotion
3) Distributive bargaining strategies

are the most efficient negotiating strategies to use

are used in all interdependent relationships

 are useful in maintaining long-term relationships

can cause negotiators to ignore what the parties have in common
4) Good distributive bargainers will

 begin negotiations with the other party with an opening offer close to their own resistance point

ensure that there is enough room in the bargaining range to make some concessions

accept an offer that is presented as a fait accompli

immediately identify the other party’s target point


 5) Which of the following processes is central to achieving almost all integrative agreements?

Moderating the free flow of information to ensure that each party’s position is accurately stated

Exchanging information about each party’s position on key issues

Emphasizing the commonalties between the parties

Searching for solutions that maximize the substantive outcome for both parties
6) Which of the following 5-step processes has been used successfully in a collective bargaining situation?

Commitment, explanation, validation, prioritization, negotiation

Commitment, exploration, verification, prioritization, negotiation

Collaboration, explanation, validation, prioritization, negotiation

Collaboration, exploration, verification, prioritization, negotiation

7) Which of the following is one of the five linguistic dimensions of making threats?

The use of inclusive language

The conveyance of verbal immediacy

The degree of lexical homogeneity

The extent of low-power la