Probability sampling is a vital part of inferential statistics, and allows for the creation of p values, or probability values, that describe the likelihood of an event occurring. It is used as a part of research methods to test hypothesis, because it helps to determine how generalizable the results of a sample could be to the general population (Sommer, 2006). Inferential statistics are useful in making claims that go beyond the data that is actually collected, which is why this generalization is important; however, this method involves a margin of error, which is why probability is important to consider in this type of research (DeCaro, 2006). The p value allows a researcher to determine whether they should attribute their results to a real effect, or whether they were more likely a product of error (Sommer, 2006).
When using inferential statistics, researchers create a null hypothesis that is generally the opposite of the experimental hypothesis. The res