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**The Cost of Equity**

In this section of the Session Long Project you'll estimate the cost of equity or the rate of return that your company's shareholders “require.” This is an important piece of information that every top manager must be able to estimate because it will be an important input in any effort to determine whether any particular course of action by the company will or will not add value to the shareholders.

We are going to use the Capital Asset Pricing Model **(CAPM)** in order to estimate the rate of return that our shareholders require on their investment. This is the minimum rate of return that these shareholders require. As stated above - we call this rate “the cost of equity” and it is expressed in percentages or in a decimal format.

The CAPM states the following equilibrium relationship between the (excess) rate of return that shareholders of a particular company "j" require (or actually in some sense 'deserve' if they fully diversify their investments) and the (excess) expected rate of return on the market portfolio:

**R _{j} - R_{F} = β_{j} [R_{M} - R_{F}] **

It follows that the rate of return that shareholders require or expect to earn on their investment in the shares of the company, or 'the cost of equity' is:

**R _{j} = R_{F} + β_{j} [R_{M} - R_{F}] **

In order to estimate the cost of equity for your company, you need to obtain an estimate of the company's “beta” or systematic risk coefficient, on the annual rate of return on a risk-free investment, and on the expected rate of return on the “market portfolio.” You can easily find that information by going to the following web site: http://finance.yahoo.com and insert the name of your company. The beta of the company is reported on that web site.

Click on the "key statistics" link on the left hand side of the screen to find the beta and other information.

First out what is the present Yield to Maturity (YTM) on a US Government bond that matures in one year. That rate is the “risk-free rate.”

Next, it is customary to assume that the difference between the expected rate of return on the “market portfolio” and the risk-free rate of return is about 7.0%. This is the expression [R_{M} - R_{F}]. So, if for example, the risk-free rate of interest is, say, 3% per year, than the expected rate of return on the “market portfolio,” RM, is 10%. So, multiply the “beta” of your SLP Company by 7.0%. That will be the equivalent of your company's β_{j} [R_{M} - R_{F}]. Then add to that number the current yield to maturity on a US Government bond [see step (1) above]. You are free to try to research and find more up to date values of R_{M} and R_{F}, but to simplify this assignment you can also assume that R_{F} = 3, R_{M} =10 and [R_{M} - R_{F}]= 7.

The above procedure provides you with an estimate of the rate of return that the shareholders of your SLP Company require on their investment. This rate is called the **cost of equity** of your company.

After going through these calculations, write a two to three page paper with the following information:

*1) Show your work that you used to obtain the cost of equity for your SLP company. *

*2) Is this cost of equity higher or lower than you expected?* The average cost of capital for a firm in the S&P 500 is 10.2 percent. Would you think your firm should have a lower or a higher cost of capital than the average firm?

*3) Look up the betas for some of the other companies that you compared your SLP company to for your Module 2 SLP.* These are the companies that you had to explain had a higher or lower discount rate than your SLP company. Using these betas, compute the cost of equity for these firms. How do they compare to your SLP company? Are you surprised that some firms have a higher or lower cost of equity than your SLP company?

*4) How would you go about finding the cost of equity using the dividend growth model or the arbitrage pricing theory for your SLP company?* Don't worry, you don't actually have to do any calculations - just explain how you would go about doing these calculations and explain what kind of additional information you might need.

5) *What do you perceive you have learnt in Module 3 SLP? Please provide your evaluation of the Module 3 SLP in brief. *

**NOTE:** Please note that your report/assignment will not be accepted without proper citations and references. You must use the sources from the background material together with the sources you find your own.

**Session Long Project (SLP) Expectations:**

In Module 3 SLP, you are expected to:

?Describe the purpose of the paper and conclusion.

?Answer the SLP questions clearly and provide necessary details.

?Provide a quality argument; that is, no poor sentence structure, no spelling and grammar mistakes or run-on sentences.

?Provide citations to support your argument and references on a separate page. Please use APA format to provide citations and references [http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/].

?Answer all the SLP questions in an essay format instead of point format. Please do not type questions in the paper.

?Type and double space the paper.

? The following criteria will also be used to assess your paper:

** **

**>Precision:** Does the paper address the question(s) or task(s)?

**>Breadth**: Is the full breadth of the subject, i.e., all the keys to the assignment, addressed?

**>Depth**: Does the paper/report address all elements of the topic in sufficient depth? Does it include and apply the background readings and other background resources? Are they included as references?

**>Critical thinking**: Are the concepts of this module applied accurately, logically, and relevantly?

**>Organization:** Is the paper organized in a coherent and systematic manner? Are headings included in all papers greater than 2 pages?

**>Clarity:** Is the writing clear and the concepts articulated properly? Are paraphrasing and synthesis of concepts the primary means of response to the questions, or are thoughts conveyed through excessive use of quotations?

In addition, this paper will be graded with the following criteria in mind:

A. Provide a direct answer to all four assignment questions, focus only on these four questions.

B. Reference all of your sources of information, both within the text as well as with a bibliography at the end.

C. For all calculations, show all of your work and demonstrate that you understand the steps.

Solution Description

**The Cost of Equity**

In this section of the Session Long Project you'll estimate the cost of equity or the rate of return that your company's shareholders “require.” This is an important piece of information that every top manager must be able to estimate because it will be an important input in any effort to determine whether any particular course of action by the company will or will not add value to the shareholders.

We are going to use the Capital Asset Pricing Model **(CAPM)** in order to estimate the rate of return that our shareholders require on their investment. This is the minimum rate of return that these shareholders require. As stated above - we call this rate “the cost of equity” and it is expressed in percentages or in a decimal format.

The CAPM states the following equilibrium relationship between the (excess) rate of return that shareholders of a particular company "j" require (or actually in some sense 'deserve' if they fully diversify their investments) and the (excess) expected rate of return on the market portfolio:

**R _{j} - R_{F} = β_{j} [R_{M<
}**