Concept Comparison and Analysis across Theories
“Nursing theory is the term given to the body of knowledge applied to support nursing practice. Nursing theory is a framework designed to organize knowledge and explain phenomena in nursing, at a more concrete and specific level. A nursing theory is a set of concepts, definitions, relationships, and assumptions or propositions derived from nursing models or from other disciplines and project a purposive, systematic view of phenomena by designing specific interrelationships among concepts for the purposes of describing, explaining, predicting, and prescribing” (“Currentnursing.com”, 2010). Core concepts embody a theory creating the basis for the theory or model. In nursing, concepts help in the development of theories. Theorists have developed different models or theories but have common core concepts.
Dorothea Orem’s self-care deficit nursing theory
“The central philosophy of the Orem’s self-care deficit nursing theory is that patients want to care for themselves and can recover more quickly and holistically by performing their own self-care as much as they're able. The self-care requisites identified by Dorothea Orem fall into one of three categories” (“Currentnursing.com”, 2010):
1. Universal self-care requisites.
f. Hazard prevention.
2. Developmental self-care requisites.
a. Maturational: progresses the patient to a higher level of maturation.
b. Situational: prevents against harmful effects in development.
3. Deviation requisites: needs that come up based on the patient's condition.
If a patient cannot meet his or her self-care needs, then the individual has developed a self-care deficit. At this point, the nurse steps in with a varying level of support that can range from complete care, partial care, or simply educating the individual (“Currentnursing.com”, 2010).
Virginia Henderson’s need theory
Henderson's goal was not “to develop a theory of nursing, but rather to define the unique focus of nursing practice. The theory emphasizes the importance of increasing the patient's independence so that progress continues after hospitalization. Her emphasis on basic human needs as the central focus of nursing practice has led to further theory development regarding the needs of the patient and how n