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  1. Unlike hospital or long – care facilities, a non-hospital organization such as The American Heart Association, The Muscular Dystrophy Association and The Lupus Foundation, are facilities that are focused directly on provided services to persons that are dealing with the issues that each foundation provides. The hospital on the other hand deal with people with all sort of illnesses, so improving productivity for a hospital might cause a lay-off of certain staff members to help the organization stay within the goal budget.The non- hospital organization could use the same approach to improve the productivity of the organization; management orientation, overview studies, productivity reporting, quality control, in-depth studies, performance/reward system and monitoring review and change. The management orientation should consist of at least two levels, the department manager or supervisor, this will allow them to analyze the current manpower to see in which direction changes are needed. Overview studies will help the organization to provide data that helps decide if an in-depth study is needed to prove the economically justification for the entire organization. Productivity reporting helps the organization to show on paper the areas that needs to be improved.

  2.  In order to improve productivity in non-hospital organizations, one must ensure that they are first aware of the organizations productivity for a set amount of time. In order to do this, there is productivity reporting systems that need to be in place that will allow for the production manager to receive information on a monthly basis for each department of the organization as well as to compare the productivity of each of these departments over an extended amount of time. There are also productivity reporting systems that need to be put in place in order to measure the labor productivity within the organization. Quality control systems can be put into place that will allow managers to measure the quality of services the organization is providing to their customers. There are several other ways in which an organization can improve their productivity. These approaches include management orientation, overview studies, in-depth studies, and performance reward systems. (Wolper, 2011)In applying this model to non-hospital organizations. The difference is the manner in which it is used is that in a non-hospital organization there may be things such as production that must be met on a daily basis that are not important in a hospital organization. There may also be more hiring of individuals in a non-hospital organization and the turnover rate may be much higher than that of a health care facility. This in turn costs the non-hospital organization money because they have to retrain new employees which cost money and they lose production on the days in which they are short staffed. Special challenges in non-medical organizations may be that of more productivity that is needed in order for the organization to continue to survive. The systems in which they use may be more complex because there are more parts to their systems as well as more data collected on a daily and weekly basis that ensure that productivity stays at its highest rate at all times.

  3. A Cause and Effect Diagram uses a combination of brainstorming along with a type of mind map. This type of analysis allows one to consider what causes a specific problem and allows them to see everything that could have caused this problem instead of just one thing. This type of analysis can be used to discover the root cause of a problem as well as to identify where and why something is not working and how to fix it. (Team, 2015) (Team, 2015) A Pareto Analysis is a simpler technique that allows on prioritizing things that may be changed by being able to identify the problem that needs to be resolved by making certain changes. “By using this approach, you can prioritize the individual changes that will most improve the situation” (Team, 2015). This type of analysis uses the 80/20 rule which gives one the idea that twenty percent of cause generates 80% of an idea. (Team, 2015) Although there are advantages to both of these types of analysis, there are also disadvantages. Some disadvantages to using the cause and effect diagram is that it only works on one specific problem and does not really allow you to focus on many different ways to solve the problem but instead, one specific way to solve it. A disadvantage to using the Pareto Analysis may be that in reality the 80/20 approach does not always work out. Just because one thinks that 20% of the cause makes more of something happen that is not always true. There may be more or less of something that can cause catastrophic things to happen within an organization according to the importance of what it is affecting. (Team, 2015)

  4. The major benefit of the cause and effect diagram is that it will allow organizations to get to the root of a particular problem rather than addressing a particular piece of the problem and having the same major issue arise later in a different form (Mindtools, n.d). The cause and effect diagram allows an organization to identify the problem and it allows the organization to determine all the factors that could be leading to the problem as well as identifying possible causes to the problem. One disadvantage to the cause and effect diagram is that identifying the factors that are involved and the possible causes could be high in number and could potentially take a long time to sort through to find the root of the problem. The time and resources spent working on the issues that did not contribute to the problem could have been used towards finding a solution to the problem. The time spent trying to figure out the cause of the problem, could be used to determining ways to increase the quality of care that is provided in the meantime. Pareto Analysis is a tool that involves prioritizing changes by identifying problems that could be resolved by those changes. This approach will allow an organization to prioritize the changes that will have the biggest positive impact on the situation. The use of Pareto’s Principle (80/20 Rule is the backbone of this analysis (Mindtool, nd). One advantage to this is that it allows management the opportunity to prioritize the problems that have occurred, and determine which problem needs to be handled first.It also allows the organization to group problems that have similar causes. Being able to solve multiple issues by addressing one problem could determine the priority in which problems will be handled. Another advantage is that it could allow the organization to prioritize the problems. One disadvantage of Pareto Analysis is that although it is predicated off the 80/20 rule, it is only illustrative and probably will not have that symmetry. The percentage of returns based on work could be higher or lower depending on the circumstances. What is deemed as a high priority could have a low ratio of work to returns and the resources used to complete the task could be gone.


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