In this short-answer exam you are going to use each of the 8 elements of reasoning as well as the 9 intellectual standards.
An Everyday Example:
Bob and Beth have been married for ten years. The couple attends a party one Saturday night. At the party Beth runs into an old college classmate, Jim. Beth and Jim spend much of the evening talking about friends in common and current life events. Bob spends much of the evening at the bar watching Beth and causally chatting with other party goers. On their way home Beth can sense something is bothering Bob, so she asks him “What’s wrong?” The following is their conversation:
Bob: “Well, I did not appreciate you flirting with your long last pal Jim all night.”
Beth: “Flirting! I was not flirting!”
Bob: “Huh, well I am not sure what else you could call it.”
Beth: “I was catching up with an old friend. Are you serious right now?”
Bob: “Yes, I am serious! When a guy spends the night focused on my wife, stands very close to her, looking at her romantically, and “innocently” touching her, that is flirting! It made me very uncomfortable.”
Beth: “Well, when my husband spends all night at the bar watching everything I do, collecting evidence as if preparing to go to trial, to a wife who has always been faithful, he is doing nothing more than being a jealous, paranoid man!”
Bob: “Jealous? Paranoid? How dare you talk to me like that!”
Beth: “What else can I say about how you are behaving? You are seriously jealous and insecure. You are accusing me of things without good reason.”
Bob: “Huh, you are going to act like this is the first time you have ever flirted? I heard you dated that guy in college.”
Beth: “Ok, well I have heard that you are jealous and insecure from your friends. I think you need to deal with your insecurities and stop pushing them off onto me. If you ask me, you need a therapist.”
Bob: “Nice, put it all off on me. You are so focused on getting male attention that you can even see or admit what you are doing is wrong and bad for our marriage. If you are not willing to change, I do not see how we can stay married.”
Beth: “Well, I guess I do not see how we can stay married either, not because I am unfaithful or a bad wife but because you are a paranoid lunatic. Unless you change your ways right now, I’m done.”
What is the fundamental problem? A) For Beth the problem is Bob’s close-mindedness, for Bob the problem is Beth’s low self-esteem. B) For Beth the problem is Bob is no longer in love with her, for Bob the problem is Beth does not want a divorce. C) For Beth the problem is Bob’s jealousy and insecurity coming out, for Bob the problem is Beth’s flirtatious behavior.
What is the question they are trying to answer? A) Both Beth and Bob are trying to answer the question of why are they married. B) Both Beth and Bob seek a successful relationship and they are trying to figure out how to be happy and secure in their relationship. C) Both Beth and Bob are trying to get out of this relationship and they are trying to figure out how to end the relationship.
What information is needed to solve this problem? A) The facts about Beth’s conversation with Jim at the party and the facts about Bob’s behavior when Beth speaks to other males. B) The facts about Beth’s relationship with her parents and the facts about Bob’s career. C) The facts about Jim’s intent.
What are the basic concepts in the question? A) Disrespect, infidelity, abusiveness B) Flirting, friendliness, jealousy C) Divorce, money, time
What assumptions are being made in this situation? A) Bob is assuming Beth really loves him. Beth is assuming Bob does not love her. Both assume that the other is responsible for the argument. B) Bob is assuming Beth’s behavior was not compatible with ordinary friendliness. Beth assumes Bob is jealous and insecure. Both assume themselves to be justified in what they have said to one another. C) Bob is assuming Beth’s behavior is a sign of infidelity. Beth is assuming Bob is unfaithful. Both assume they should end the relationship.
What is Bob’s point of view? What is Beth’s point of view? What is your point of view as an outside party?
What are the inferences or conclusions? A) Beth and Bob’s inferences (conclusions) about the situation derive from the same behavior in the same instance, but they both see the behavior differently. To Beth, her behavior was friendly. To Bob, Beth’s behavior was flirtatious. B) Beth and Bob’s inferences (conclusions) about the situation come from two different experiences in the past. To Beth, her behavior was friendly and Bob’s was unjustified. To Bob, Beth’s behavior stems from years of unfaithful behavior and having no consequences. C) Beth and Bob’s inferences (conclusions) about the situation derive from the same behavior in the same instance, but they both see the behavior differently. To Beth, her behavior was an act of cheating. To Bob, Beth’s behavior was cheating.
What are the implications of the reasoning involved in this situation? A) Beth and Bob imply by their reasoning that they are to blame for the differences between them. Both seem to imply that they will go on to live happily ever after. B) Beth and Bob imply by their reasoning that Beth is to blame for their differences. Both seem to imply that the relationship will be fine once Beth fixes her behavior. C) Beth and Bob imply by their reasoning that the other is to blame for the differences between them. Both seem to imply that the relationship is in jeopardy.
Bob says to Beth, “If you think I am always jealous, can you give me another example of a time when I have behaved this way?” Bob is asking to support the claim of jealousy with a previous example to ensure that this label is a(n) ____________ representation of his behavior. A) Accuracy B) Clarity C) Relevance
Beth says to Bob, “Let me state in my own words what I think you just said. Tell me if I am clear on what you are saying.” Beth is trying to use ______ standard to better understand what Bob is saying to her. A) Depth B) Precision C) Clarity
Bob wants to focus on the facts from this situation. He does not want to discuss an argument from last week they had on their political ideologies. Bob is wanting to focus on the ________ pieces of information. A) Clarity B) Depth C) Relevant
Beth wants to talk about any other feelings of jealousy Bob may have in their relationship. She wants to deal with the significant feelings that are impacting their relationship. Beth is using the _______ standard to look into the complexities of the problem. A) Relevance B) Significance C) Depth
Bob wants to go to a marriage counselor to get another point of view on their marital problems. Bob is using what standard in his broader thinking? A) Breadth B) Fairness C) Clarity
Beth says to Bob, “I want to focus on what happened and how you were feeling during the events of the evening. I want to make sure all of the pieces fit together and make sense.” Beth is using what standard to put the thoughts in an order. A) Logic B) Breadth C) Depth
Bob wants to focus on the _______ information needed to address the issues in their relationship. He uses these questions to focus more on the significant issues. “What are the most important pieces of information we need to address the issues in our marriage?” “How is what happened at the party important to our overall marriage?” “What do I need to do to fix my marriage?” A) Significant B) Fairness C) Relevance
Beth begins to ask questions to make sure she is using the ______ standard in her dealings with Bob. These questions include: “Is my thinking justified given the evidence?” “Am I considering his point of view?” “Is my purpose fair given the implications of my behavior?” These questions are an example of _______ standard. A) Fairness B) Depth C) Clarity
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