1. Which one of the following theories are you most likely to apply
if you want to focus on what motivates people to perform?
A. Two-factor theory
B. Expectancy theory
C. Equity theory
D. Social learning theory
2. According to Maslow, you’ll try to shelter yourself from a
violent thunderstorm while in search of butterflies for your
collection in spite of the fact that you’re an avid student of
butterflies. This example illustrates the principle of
A. safety needs. C. prepotency.
B. deficiency needs. D. self-actualization.
3. The goal of classical conditioning is to reliably produce a/an
A. neutral stimulus. C. unconditioned response.
B. conditioned stimulus. D. conditioned response.
4. Managers who adopt an MBO system are focused on
A. employee expectations. C. effective goal-setting.
B. motivation through compensation. D. managing through observation.
5. Suppose you’re using the principles of operant conditioning to reinforce desired employee
behaviors. Which of the following is an unacceptable guideline to that end?
A. Providing information through feedback
B. Explaining how rewards are associated with performance
C. Making sure rewards for employees are the same
D. Finding out which rewards are valued by different employees
6. Which one of the following measures does your textbook suggest as an alternative
A. Occasionally ignoring behavior whose purpose is to annoy managers
B. Firing disruptive employees
C. Conducting electronic surveillance of employee work behavior
D. Rearranging work tasks to reduce workloads
7. Suppose you’ve just discovered that you enjoy jogging. According to the Law of Effect,
what are you likely to do?
A. Reinforce the behavior. C. Condition the behavior.
B. Repeat the behavior. D. Treat the behavior as an operant.
8. Since the decades of the Industrial Revolution, American industry has been going through
an era of job _______.
A. rehumanization C. simplification
B. enlargement D. enrichment
9. As compared to expectancy theory, reinforcement theory focuses on _______ rewards with
respect to current behavior.
A. anticipated C. past
B. desired D. present
10. How do advocates of OB Mod feel about the manipulation of employee behavior?
A. It’s unacceptable because it’s too controlling.
B. It’s unacceptable because it forces employees to become dependent.
C. It’s acceptable when employees resist change.
D. It’s acceptable because it contributes to the mission of the organization.
11. Which one of the following statements accurately summarizes the process of
A. Treat others as you believe they are.
B. Treat others as though they are what you hope they will become.
C. Treat everyone impartially and without prejudice.
D. Treat others as you want to be treated.
12. Edward was satisfied with his salary until he discovered that James, who works in the
same position, makes $1 an hour more. Which one of the following theories would best
predict Edward’s behavior?
A. Two-factor theory C. Expectancy theory
B. Organizational behavior and modification D. Equity theory
13. Meg knows that if she works overtime for the next two weeks she can make an
additional $200. However, she would rather spend that time with her new boyfriend.
Meg’s attitude toward the $200 represents which component of Vroom’s theory?
A. Effort-performance expectancy C. Valence
B. Performance-outcome expectancy D. Effort-outcome expectancy
14. Which one of the following is an example of a social need?
A. Food C. Security
B. Love D. Prestige
15. Which of the following reinforcement schedules is least effective in terms of encouraging
resistance to extinction?
A. Fixed ratio C. Variable interval
B. Fixed interval D. Variable ratio
16. Based on Lawler’s studies of the three dimensions used to relate pay to performance, which
one of the following methods would you be least likely to apply in your compensation scheme?
A. Performance ratings based on cost-effectiveness
B. Performance ratings based on productivity
C. Individually based bonus plans
D. Objective group performance evaluations
17. In the language of operant conditioning, the reinforcement schedule best exemplified by a
piece-rate pay scheme is the _______ schedule.
A. fixed ratio C. variable interval
B. variable ratio D. fixed interval
18. According to the evidence available, quality circles are more likely to be unsuccessful when
A. participants are motivated by monetary rewards.
B. they use facilitators as opposed to supervisors.
C. they’re too openly embraced by top management.
D. the circle participants can expect to have their responsibilities reduced.
19. Carol is an employee in the Assembly Department. Her supervisor told her that she will
receive a pay increase if she can increase her output by 5 percent. Carol mistakenly understood
that her increase in pay would also be 5 percent. When she learned that the salary
increase was only 1 percent, her motivational force would be likely to
A. remain approximately the same.
B. be greatly reduced.
C. increase slightly.
D. fluctuate according to her daily perceptions.
20. Occasionally, Marjorie’s husband must work late. On those days, she must stay home to
care for their child until her husband gets home from work. Which one of the following
plans would be most suited to Marjorie’s needs?
A. Flextime C. Telecommuting
B. Modified workweek D. Job redesign
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