1) ________ increases the probability that a behavior will occur by administering positive consequences to employees who perform the behavior.
A) Cognitive corroboration
B) Behavior modification
C) Operant conditioning
D) Positive reinforcement
2) Managers who use reinforcement must
A) decide whether to use conditioned or unconditioned stimuli.
B) choose whether to use continuous or partial reinforcement.
C) understand that it is always costly and difficult to use.
D) choose to use either positive or negative reinforcers, but not both.
3) ________ reinforcement produces faster learning.
4) Which of the following is not one of the four schedules of partial reinforcement?
A) Fixed-ratio schedule
B) Fixed-interval schedule
C) Variable-ratio schedule
D) Sequential schedule
5) ________ is the reinforcement of successive and closer approximations to a desired behavior.
A) Positive reinforcement
B) Operant conditioning
6) Which of the following is the first step in the five-step process of OB Mod?
7) In OB MOD, once the frequency of the behavior has been determined, it is
A) analyze the antecedents and consequences of the behavior.
B) get a baseline measure of how often the behavior occurs.
C) intervene to change the frequency of the behavior.
D) evaluate whether the intervention was successful in changing behavior.
8) Dan Miller is trying to learn how to use a new computer system by watching a co- worker, Tom Seigmund, use the software on his computer. Social learning theory would refer to Tom as
A) the motivation for Dan’s actions.
B) the stimulus for Dan’s learning.
C) the model for Dan’s learning.
D) the antecedent of Dan’s behavior.
9) An important ingredient for a learning organization is ________, that is, being able to capitalize on the knowledge that members of the organization have, which might not be written down or codified in formal documents.
A) infrastructure analysis
B) information management
C) knowledge management
D) data mining
10) Which element of work motivation answers the question “how hard does a person work to perform a chosen behavior”?
B) Level of persistence
C) Level of effort
D) Direction of behavior
11) Which of the following is not an outcome in the motivation equation?
A) Job security
B) Level of customer service
C) Pleasure of doing interesting work
D) Feeling of accomplishment
12) According to Alderfer’s ERG theory, which of the following is not a need?
13) If an employee does not think she is capable of performing at an adequate level even with maximum effort, her motivation to perform at that level will be
14) Which of the following statements about valence is not true?
A) Valences range between -1 and +1.
B) Valences vary in magnitude.
C) Desirable outcomes have positive valences.
D) Valences vary in size.
15) Bill Stoner has believed for several years that he works as hard as his coworker, Barry Savage, works but never seems to receive the pay increases or recognition that Savage
does. Stoner has grown frustrated with trying to “catch up” with Savage and has
started feeling more motivated since he realized his superiors pay more attention to
him than they do another coworker, Fred Jennings. According to equity theory, Stoner
A) his inputs.
B) his outputs.
C) his perception of his referent’s inputs.
16) ________ was one of the earliest systematic approaches to job design.
A) Vertical loading
B) Scientific management
C) Job enrichment
D) Job enlargement
17) Many auto shops that promise oil changes in 30 minutes or less assign one person to
put the car on the lift, a second to drain the old oil, a third to put in new oil, and a
fourth to be sure the other jobs have been done and to check the other lubricants.
This method of breaking down a job into these various elements is known as
A) simplification and specialization.
B) time and motion studies.
C) job enrichment.
D) job enlargement.
18) Randy G. Darcy’s cost-cutting efforts at General Mills illustrate how
A) cost cutting requires the redesigning of jobs.
B) job enrichment can also lead to increases in efficiency.
C) added responsibility does not always work.
D) job enhancement can boost bottom-line profits.
19) All of the following approaches to job design focus on some degree of intrinsic motivation except
A) job enrichment.
B) the job characteristics model.
C) scientific management.
D) social information processing.
20) Goal-setting theory proposes that difficult and specific goals lead to ________ than do easy or vague goals.
A) higher stress and conflict on the job
B) higher motivation and performance
C) more extrinsic motivation
D) more absenteeism and turnover
21) Costco’s customers are loyal because they
A) appreciate the relatively high quality of its goods.
B) love the bargains and low prices.
C) like the fact that Costco treats its employees well.
D) All of the above
22) Pay is a ________ between employees and an organization.
A) central aspect of psychological contracts
B) powerful motivational tool
C) key component of the exchange relationship
D) All of the above
23) ________ suggests that when pay is contingent on performance, employees are motivated to perform because doing so will help satisfy their needs.
A) Need theory
B) Expectancy theory
C) Equity theory
D) Procedural justice theory
24) The principle of ________ suggests that jobs of equivalent value to an organization should carry the same pay rates, without regard to the nature of the work itself or the personal characteristics of the people performing the work.
A) comparable worth
B) procedural justice
C) distributive justice
D) compensatory equity
25) Which of the following steps can organizations take to help dual-career couples, single parents, and workers caring for elderly parents?
A) Use flexible working arrangements
B) Have on-site day care centers
C) Limit unnecessary moves and travel as much as possible
D) All of the above